Article accepted by IEEE TPDS -
Putting the Next 500 VM Placement Algorithms to the Acid Test
Adrien Lebre, Jonathan Pastor, Anthony Simonet, Mario Südholt
Most current infrastructures for cloud computing leverage static and greedy policies for the placement of virtual machines. Such policies impede the optimal allocation of resources from the infrastructure provider viewpoint. Over the last decade, more dynamic and often more efficient policies based, e.g., on consolidation and load balancing techniques, have been developed. Due to the underlying complexity of cloud infrastructures, these policies are evaluated either using limited scale testbeds/in-vivo experiments or ad-hoc simulators. These validation methodologies are unsatisfactory for two important reasons: they (i) do not model precisely enough real production platforms (size, workload variations, failure, etc.) and (ii) do not enable the fair comparison of different approaches. More generally, new placement algorithms are thus continuously being proposed without actually identifying their benefits with respect to the state of the art.
In this article, we show how VMPlaceS, a dedicated simulation framework enables researchers (i) to study and compare VM placement algorithms from the infrastructure perspective, (ii) to detect possible limitations at large scale and (iii) to easily investigate different design choices. Built on top of the SimGrid simulation platform, VMPlaceS provides programming support to ease the implementation of placement algorithms and runtime support dedicated to load injection and execution trace analysis. To illustrate the relevance of VMPlaceS, we first discuss a few experiments that enabled us to study in details three well known VM placement strategies. Diving into details, we also identify several modifications that can significantly increase their performance in terms of reactivity. Second, we complete this overall presentation of VMPlaceS by focusing on the energy efficiency of the well-know FFD strategy. We believe that VMPlaceS will allow researchers to validate the benefits of new placement algorithms, thus accelerating placement research and favouring the transfer of results to IaaS production platforms.